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      The important thing to remember is that
  tools are not talent. The most powerful
  force of all is your ability to create
  and communicate. You need to express
  something, then you find the tool and
  then you make it. A good tool can make
  things easier and can open up
  possibilities for creative expression.
  But the tool is always subservient to
  the idea.

ICT that can be used include:

for Freehand drawing:
using a mouse, a Drawing Tablet (wacom board)

for Instrumental drawing (read 'Manual or Electronic?' below):
using computer programs such as Autocad, Vector Programs
such as Freehand, Corel Draw, Illustrator to construct
orthogonal, paraline/perspective drawings or any straight edged
work constructed with instruments for purposes such as logo
design, text, layouts

for Graphics (images and text):
using computer programs such as Photoshop ......

   As you use the computer, print out progressive
   evidence of your development of design
   alternatives, annotating decisions as they
   are made. This allows you to make more
   considered decisions as they progress and
   it may encourage you to generate, develop and
   refine further ideas.

black and white, colour, positive, reversal

black and white, colour
A photocopier can be used to reduce images, enlarge images
(cropping), combine images and copy actual objects and
materials. You can also obtain interesting effects by adjusting
the contrast. Here are some links to show you examples
LINK 1   LINK  2   LINK 3   LINK 4

3D process:
construction, moulding - when producing design alternatives (not
producing the final presentation) using equipment such as
sewing machines, sanders, drills, etc.


airbrush (powered)

Manual or Electronic ?

Traditionally instrumental drawings were done by hand, either by
the designer him/herself or a draftsperson and were used
throughout the design and manufacturing processes. Since the
late 1980s most companies have been using computer aided
drawing software packages.

These software packages allow the user to design on the
computer screen with the appropriate scale and details in two or
three dimensions. Computer aided drawing is advantageous for
numerous reasons. Most would agree that the best feature is
the ability to manipulate and  change a drawing without
redrawing or erasing.  This saves a large amount of time.  Most
software will not only allow the user to remove or add lines, but
it will scale, dimension, smooth, texturize, join and subtract
solids, etc.  More recent versions of CAD software allows the
designer to change one dimension and the part will scale itself
accordingly.  The options seem endless and they continually
increase with the new versions that are released.

Aside from allowing the user to make modifications easily,
computer designing also provides uniform and neat drawings
every time, whereas hand drawings vary dramatically from
draftsperson to draftsperson. For designs which are three
dimensional, most software allows the user to spin an object
and view it from various angles, which is very difficult to do in
two dimensional drawings.  Because the drawings
are created on a computer, they can also be stored there and
accessed or printed by other users.  Storage on a computer is a
convenient means of keeping a set of drawings because they
will not be damaged and will not take up the physical space that
a large set would.  
The advantages to computer aided drawing
are numerous and that is why virtually all instrumental
drawings are now created on the computer

Vector or Bitmap?

Vector programs (CorelDRAW, Adobe Illustrator) create OBJECTS

Bitmap programs (Corel Photopaint, Adobe Photoshop)
manipulate and create IMAGES

There are different kinds of graphic programs, and you need to
use the right program for the job you need to do. Some graphic
programs are intended to manipulate photographs, some create
line art, and others let you paint with electronic oils, charcoals
and waterpaints. While it's true that most can do more than just
one thing, (a paint program can create a vector path, for
example) every art program is intended to fall more into one of
these categories.

Vector programs (CorelDRAW, Adobe Illustrator) create OBJECTS
- shapes and fills. If you draw an egg, and then put a blue
square on top of it, you can move the square around, delete it,
place it behind the egg, resize and reshape. The program
remembers each object, with its dimensions, outline and fill.

Bitmap programs (Corel Photopaint, Adobe Photoshop)
manipulate the colors of pixels. The pixel has no inherent size -
it could be 1/72 of an inch, or 1/300, or any other size you
specify. It is a dot of color - the smallest picture element (hence
the word "pixel.") If you draw an egg in a bitmap, or raster,
program, and then draw a square on top of it, you have an oval
with a square on it. If you erase the square, you have a hole in
your egg. If you resize one, you resize both. The program
doesn't care where the pixels turn blue; it only knows that there
are blue pixels and egg colored ones.

Vector programs, like Coreldraw and Illustrator, are used to
create crisp illustrations, with distinct outlines and fills. They
aren't used to manipulate photos — to put your dog's head
onto your boy friend's body, for example.

A designer will come into contact with two kinds of computer
image files. They may look the same but upon closer
inspection, one finds that they are quite different in many ways.
This web page explains the differences between Bitmap-based
image files and Vector-based image files.   

More links with examples





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Photoshop is widely regarded as the most significant
development in graphic arts since color photography, perhaps
since the invention of photography itself, 160-some years ago.

Photoshop is used to manipulate bitmap images such as those
from scanners and digital cameras. It's basically an electronic
darkroom. We use it constantly to tweak and enhance photos
and logos in our websites and software. Today's version 7
includes integrated vector drawing tools, an expanded Web
toolkit, tighter integration with other Adobe programs, and
enhanced layer management.

Photoshop is primarily an Image Manipulator, or Image Editor,
but it has many features that let you work in all sorts of ways.
With Photoshop, you can create line art and vector shapes.
Photoshop is a Bitmap, or Raster program, but you can also use
it to draw and paint. About the only choice that wouldn't be right
is to say that Photoshop is a 'Drawing Program'. Drawing
programs are the true Vector programs, like Adobe Illustrator,
CorelDraw and Freehand.


Illustrator is used for vector-based drawings that are easier to
manipulate than bitmaps. Illustrator is capable of producing a
wide range of artwork from black and white logos to full color
illustrations. Like Photoshop, Illustrator is a standard in the
graphic design industry.

The advantage to vector graphics is that you can resize them
and tweak them and they are not going to lose resolution.  
Illustrator is a tool used by professionals to create text, line art,
and professional logos. Illustrator is used to create and develop
freehand drawings which can be manipulated and combined with
other graphic elements. When used with the Wacom graphics
tablet, it is a very useful tool for various types of graphic design
needs.  Illustrator is used to create vector graphics, made of
lines and curves defined by mathematical objects called vectors.
You can move, resize or change the colour of a vector object
without losing the quality of the graphic. As a result Illustrator is
ideal for type and bold graphics that must maintain crisp lines
when scaled to various sizes.

Illustrator example 1   example 2                 

AutoCAD is a design application software program used by civil
engineers, facility managers, architects, and others in the
professional services design disciplines for creating drawings and
maps in spatial relationships. AutoCAD is used to develop
geometric construction techniques, orthographic projection, and
oblique, and isometric drawings. AutoCAD is used to develop 2D

"We very often employ CAD (Computer Aided Design) software
to accurately draw scaled layouts of marquees, so that our
clients can 'relate' to what the marquee will look and feel like.
Most importantly it gives them a spatial awareness (furniture
layout etc) that may not be clear from simply a written

autocad example 1
Scroll down to
'Listed below are some example AutoCADs:-'

autocad example 2
then click arrow to go to next page - 3d of bike

Manual or Electronic?

Vector or Bitmap?



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