DESIGN ELEMENTS & PRINCIPLES

DESIGN ELEMENTS:  point line shape form tone texture colour letterform     FOR TEACHERS

DESIGN PRINCIPLES:  figure-ground balance contrast cropping hierarchy scale proportion pattern
INDEX   Members only
DESIGN ELEMENT
FORM


FORM is three-dimensional (height, width, and depth)
and encloses volume
For example, a triangle, which is two-dimensional, is a shape,
but a pyramid, which is three-dimensional, is a form. Cubes,
spheres, pyramids, cones, and cylinders are examples of
various forms.

To see a variety of forms
click
here for a prism, cylinder and sphere
click
here for more, including a cone


WHAT IS FORM? (and how is it achieved?)
Go to
www.mindspring.com/~maw01/school/introart/formcolr/formcolr.htm


DIFFERENCE BETWEEN SHAPE AND FORM
An area of color or an area defined by an enclosed line on a flat
surface is a 'shape'. It is two-dimensional, consisting only of
height and width, but not of depth.

The three-dimensional mass or volume is called a 'form'. It
consists of height, width and depth. The cube above appears to
have depth although it is on a flat surface - it is an illusion of a
form. A cardboard box, a ball, a pyramid in the desert - these
are all examples of a three-dimensional form. You can see a
form from many angles, whereas a shape is visible only from a
certain number of angles.

HOW TO SHOW FORM
Shading of Lights and Darks
When drawing or painting, one way to show the
three-dimensionality of the subject is to shade the light and
dark areas, also known as tones, or values. When working in
black-and-white or color, subjects have varying values of light
and dark, on a scale from white to black, or grayscale.

Geometric objects, like a cube, will have more sharply defined
areas of differing tones, depending on the amount and types of
light in a room. These will have a smaller number of tones
represented, and these will have sharper edges of tones.    
EXAMPLES

















To depict a cube, only three tonal values are necessary:
the side which receives the most light being the lightest,
the side furthest from the light source (the darkest), and
a middle grey tone for the side which receives an in-
between or indirect amount of light.

Natural objects, on the other hand, can have an endless number
of tones represented, and these will often have softer, less
defined edges.














EXAMPLES
Nemo     Still Life     Face     Head (by Durer)

Click here for ACTIVITY: SPHERES - RENDERING


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