DESIGN ELEMENTS & PRINCIPLESDESIGN ELEMENTS: point line shape form tone texture colour letterform FOR TEACHERSDESIGN PRINCIPLES: figure-ground balance contrast cropping hierarchy scale proportion pattern |

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The surrealist painter Magritte often used distortions of proportions to create striking effects Click here or here to see the above image in full |

Here is a diagram which shows how to construct a golden rectangle 1. Draw the square (a) 2. bisect the bottom side 3. draw the arc from the upper right corner to the extension of the bottom side (b) 4. complete the rectangle or click here |

DESIGN PRINCIPLE

**PROPORTION**

**PROPORTION refers to the size of one part relating to **

the size of another part. It also refers to how the size

of one part relates to the size of the whole item.

For more go to

www.webreference.com/dlab/9702/proportions.html

and

char.txa.cornell.edu/language/principl/principl.htm

scroll down below 'Balance'

In the last 35 years the ideal personified by the fashion

model has fostered a standard which idealizes

**exceptionally slender body proportions for women**.

Sports have provided models for ideal**male body **

proportions.

The Superhero is the mainstay of the modern comic

book. The Superhero comes in many forms and

interpretations.**Drawing Superheroes involves **

determining proportions for the basic human figure.

The "normal" figure is the basis for the muscular

Superhero.

Go to

www.kubertsworld.com/courses/pages_jpegs/big_jpegs/heroes1a.

jpg

For more go to

www.kubertsworld.com/courses/pages/heroes2e.jpg

**But what does all this mean for you - the designer?**

Proportion refers to the relationship of one part to

another or to the whole with respect to size, quantity, or

degree; a ratio.**Often proportion is allied with another **

design principle - 'hierarchy'. For example, if one part

of a layout is larger compared to another part, it may

have greater importance.

The Golden Rectangle

The proportions of the 'Golden Rectangle' are thought to

be the most pleasing of all rectangles

The 'Golden Rectangle' is a rectangle where the two

dimensions (length and height) are related by the

'Golden Ratio' - 1 : 1.618

www.ransen.com/Articles/Golden/Rectangle.htm

The beauty of the golden ratio may be indicated by the fact that

**a golden rectangle subdivides into a square and another, **

smaller golden rectangle. This process can be continued ad

infinitum, and similarly inversed by adding a square over the

longer side of a golden rectangle.

Since the Renaissance the golden ratio has been used

extensively in art and architecture. It figures in the Venetian

Church of St. Mark built early in the 16 th century, and**has **

become a standard proportion for width in relation to height as

used for

facades of buildings

windows

paintings and picture frames

There is something 'satisfactory' about the relationships of the

proportion. In the l930's the Pratt Institute of New York did a

study on various rectangular proportions laid out as vertical

frames, and asked several hundred art students to comment on

which seemed the most pleasing. The ratio of 1 : 2 was least

liked, while the Golden Ratio was favored by a very large

margin, which seemed to point to the actual dimensions as

generating a pleasing response by their size.

www.ewersarchitecture.com/golden_section.htm

The Golden Section has been referred to as the Divine

Proportion, the Golden Rectangle, or the Fibonacci Sequence

(after Leonardo Fibonacci of Pisa who pioneered some of the

early mathematical phenomena and its connection with nature).

This proportion has been demonstrated in the Greek

architecture of the Parthenon, the Renaissance architecture of

Leon Battista Albertiâ€™s Santa Maria Novella in Florence, and

used extensively by Le Corbusier in his quest for modular

designs of modern architecture.

HOME

the size of another part. It also refers to how the size

of one part relates to the size of the whole item.

www.webreference.com/dlab/9702/proportions.html

and

char.txa.cornell.edu/language/principl/principl.htm

scroll down below 'Balance'

In the last 35 years the ideal personified by the fashion

model has fostered a standard which idealizes

Sports have provided models for ideal

proportions

The Superhero is the mainstay of the modern comic

book. The Superhero comes in many forms and

interpretations.

determining proportions for the basic human figure.

The "normal" figure is the basis for the muscular

Superhero.

Go to

www.kubertsworld.com/courses/pages_jpegs/big_jpegs/heroes1a.

jpg

For more go to

www.kubertsworld.com/courses/pages/heroes2e.jpg

another or to the whole with respect to size, quantity, or

degree; a ratio.

design principle - 'hierarchy'. For example, if one part

of a layout is larger compared to another part, it may

have greater importance.

The Golden Rectangle

be the most pleasing of all rectangles

The 'Golden Rectangle' is a rectangle where the two

dimensions (length and height) are related by the

'Golden Ratio' - 1 : 1.618

www.ransen.com/Articles/Golden/Rectangle.htm

The beauty of the golden ratio may be indicated by the fact that

smaller golden rectangle

infinitum, and similarly inversed by adding a square over the

longer side of a golden rectangle.

Since the Renaissance the golden ratio has been used

extensively in art and architecture. It figures in the Venetian

Church of St. Mark built early in the 16 th century, and

become a standard proportion for width in relation to height

used for

facades of buildings

windows

paintings and picture frames

There is something 'satisfactory' about the relationships of the

proportion. In the l930's the Pratt Institute of New York did a

study on various rectangular proportions laid out as vertical

frames, and asked several hundred art students to comment on

which seemed the most pleasing. The ratio of 1 : 2 was least

liked, while the Golden Ratio was favored by a very large

margin, which seemed to point to the actual dimensions as

generating a pleasing response by their size.

www.ewersarchitecture.com/golden_section.htm

The Golden Section has been referred to as the Divine

Proportion, the Golden Rectangle, or the Fibonacci Sequence

(after Leonardo Fibonacci of Pisa who pioneered some of the

early mathematical phenomena and its connection with nature).

This proportion has been demonstrated in the Greek

architecture of the Parthenon, the Renaissance architecture of

Leon Battista Albertiâ€™s Santa Maria Novella in Florence, and

used extensively by Le Corbusier in his quest for modular

designs of modern architecture.

HOME

Right:"The Parade" A painting deliberately designed by Searat using the golden ratio. The ratios of all the dimensions indicated are all approximately 1 : 1.618 |