DESIGN ELEMENTS:  point line shape form tone texture colour letterform     FOR TEACHERS

DESIGN PRINCIPLES:  figure-ground balance contrast cropping hierarchy scale proportion pattern
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TONE can also be regarded as VALUE as both terms
refer to the various degrees of lightness or darkness.
At this point, the colour
* (or hue) of the subject is

Some terms which need to be understood

SHADE:   A colour (hue) with black added. This is why using a
            (black) pencil on paper (the 'colour') for rendering is
            referred to as SHADING

TINT:      A colour (hue) with white added

TONE:     A colour (hue) with grey added

VALUE:    The degree of lightness or darkness in colours. This
            is easier to see if the colours are translated into
            greyscale (see below) and is the reason why the
            terms TONE and VALUE are similar.

The element of value or tone is, in its simplest form, the
juxtaposition of light and dark. It is defined as the
intensity of lightness or darkness in anything that is
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Value (or tone) refers to the various degrees of light and
shadow. Values allow us to perceive the three-dimensionality of
objects because values correspond to planes of form.
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Balancing the darks, medium grays and whites in a drawing is
critical simply because this is the only way to capture the illusion
of three-dimensions on a flat surface such as paper.

Value is the difference in tones of light and dark. Light tones
are "high" in value, dark tones are "low" in value.Values create
form, the shape of the image and a sense of volume or
The use of different kinds of lines and dots, alone or in groups,
and cross-hatching can also create tonal values & texture.
You can work with a basic palette of only 5 shades
Note that the human eye can not easily distinguish more than
5-7 gray tones, and the differentiation is more difficult at the
very light and very dark ends of a scale

This is probably the limit to the range of tones     
that can be used if viewers are going to be       
able to distinguish between each tone.         
When you look at both maps, you can see       
the great advantage colour has over tone.
Value is just another word for the lightness and darkness of an
area. Value is how we perceive forms. If a room was pitch black
we would become disoriented, as there would be no light falling
on areas in order to give us visual clues to where we were or if
other objects where in the room with us.
Value gradation or contrast is also known as chiaroscuro.

Continuous Tone- Images and devices that produce smooth
gradations without apparent steps in color or value such as

High contrast/Low contrast, High key/Low key  4

*   Colour has three characteristics:
              Hue - the quality which distinguishes one colour from
              another.This is another word for "colour"
Tone (usually referred to as 'Value') - The quality of
              brightness, the lightness or darkness of a colour
Chroma - the quality of saturation or intensity of a