Computer images can be created and viewed in many
different formats
The term formats refers to the idea that images are devised
and stored by varying programs and methods (techniques).
Virtually every image creation/manipulation program has a
unique format, often incompatible with other image

There are many software packages available for image
creation and/or manipulation
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There are two basic types of graphic images: Raster/bitmap
images and Vector images.  
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In the interest of consistency, on the Web there are only
three image formats that are relatively safe for rendering
images. These formats are used because:
        Most image capable browsers are configured to
        read image files based on these formats.

        Each of these formats compresses images,
        i.e. makes the images smaller, for faster Web page

        Each of the formats is relatively easy to display,
        and are commonly available in the most popular
        image creation programs.

The three image formats are:
JPEG for Joint Photographics Experts Group, which is named
for the organization that created this image format. As the
organization's name indicates, this is a good format for
photographs. This method also does an excellent job of
compressing files. It is not the best format for displaying
drawings or illustrations. Often, files produced in this format
will have a file name extension of jpg or jpeg, as in:
filename.jpeg. Typically, this type of image format is
pronounced "jay-peg." For those interested in the nitty-gritty
details of the JPEG format, the official site is:

GIF for Graphics Interchange Format, was initiated by the
CompuServe online company. There are two versions of this
format in common use: GIF87 and GIF89a. The GIF89a
version is the most popular because with it images can be
animated, among other features. This format tends to read
colors in distinct patterns. As a result, this format is best
used for drawings and other illustrations - which usually have
distinct areas of contrasting colours. Typically, files produced
in this format have a file name extension of gif. This type of
image format is pronounced "giff" or "jiff."

PNG for Portable Network Graphics is the newest of the
graphics formats, and it is rapidly gaining widespread
attention. It does an excellent job of compressing images,
and is completely free and unhindered by proprietary
concerns (the JPEG format is also not proprietary, but the GIF
format is owned by the UNISYS Corp., which has exerted
some ownership muscle in limiting GIF use.) Because the
PNG format is free to use and more efficient, the W3C has
been promoting it. However, there is one significant drawback
to using the PNG format. Older browsers, such as any before
Netscape® 4 or Internet Explorer® 4, can't view PNG
images. The future seems to favor PNG, but for designers
who have a large base of users with older browsers, it is not
a viable image format. Usually images with the PNG format
are named with a png extension, as in filename.png.
Typically, the png image format is pronounced "ping." A
good site for details on the PNG format is:
more .....


Of the many classes of type that are available (such
as serif, sans-serif, slab, display, and script), the most
commonly specified are serif and sans-serif (usually
shortened to "sans") typefaces.

Serif: What you see used in almost all newspapers,
novels and textbooks is a serif typeface. Well-
designed serif type is considered highly readable and
is the oldest class of lettering used in print.

Sans Serif: This class of type is without (sans) serifs.
There are many styles from conservative to cutting-
edge. Generally, sans faces are used for short to
medium copy, headlines, footers, etc. Sans type is
considered less readable than serif, and is thus rarely
specified for lengthy texts (such as books).

One rule of thumb in the use of type is that usually no
more than two faces should be incorporated into a
given piece. Additionally, using two of the same class
typefaces (e.g., two sans faces) in the same layout
typically does not work. In many cases, a combination
of one serif and one sans face is used…one for the
copy and the other for headlines and other special
uses). Of course, there are always exceptions to the
rule when the client's content calls for it.

The way a piece of print looks is greatly influenced by the
type face used. Differing type faces can create differing
emotional messages for the viewer, for instance a large bold
type could suggest authority. Good use of type is a skill that
will give pleasure to the viewer when done well.

Text, the fundamental media
..... the most prevalent media and may be even the most
important media is text. As we look at various Web sites,
multimedia Web sites, we see excellent use of text and very
poor use of text. What makes good use of text you might
ask? Well, we are glad you did. We want to talk about some
First, the absolute major criteria of successful use of text is
that it must be legible.

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