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DESIGN

U N I V E R S A L   D E S I G N
BACK   -   KETTLES : ACTIVITY
BACK   -   KETTLES : ADA CRITERIA
DESIGNING A KETTLE
Basic geometry dictates the design of
this kettle
more information

Guidelines for product design
ELECTRIC KETTLES CHECKLIST
The Research Institute for Consumer
Affairs (RICA) in the UK are a
national research charity dedicated to
providing independent information of
value to disabled and older
consumers. It researches and
publishes consumer reports. They are
all based on rigorous research and
provide practical information needed
by disabled and older consumers.
The Research Institute for Consumer
Affairs also work with manufacturers,
service providers, regulators and
policy makers to improve products
and services. Their aim is to increase
their awareness of the needs of
disabled and older consumers
through specialist research.
CLICK HERE
UNIVERSAL DESIGN

The Centre for Universal Design at North Carolina State University in
USA is committed to UNIVERSAL DESIGN. The following information
can be found on their website
CLICK HERE

Universal Design Definition:
The design of products and environments to be usable by
all people, to the greatest extent  possible, without the
need for adaptation or specialized design

THE SEVEN PRINCIPLES OF UNIVERSAL DESIGN
The authors, a working group of architects, product designers,
engineers and environmental  design researchers, collaborated to
establish the following Principles of Universal Design to guide a wide
range of design disciplines including environments, products, and
communications.
These  seven principles may be applied to evaluate
existing designs, guide the design process and educate both
designers and consumers about the characteristics of more usable
products and  environments
.

Note: all guidelines may not be relevant to all designs  

c   PRINCIPLE ONE: Equitable Use
The design is useful and marketable to people with diverse abilities

Guidelines:
1a. Provide the same means of use for all users: identical whenever
possible; equivalent when  not.
1b. Avoid segregating or stigmatizing any users.
1c. Provisions for privacy, security, and safety should be equally
available to all users.
1d. Make the design appealing to all users.

c   PRINCIPLE TWO: Flexibility in Use
The design accommodates a wide range of individual preferences and
abilities

Guidelines:
2a. Provide choice in methods of use.
2b. Accommodate right- or left-handed access and use.
2c. Facilitate the user's accuracy and precision.
2d. Provide adaptability to the user's pace.

c   PRINCIPLE THREE: Simple and Intuitive Use
Use of the design is easy to understand, regardless of the user's
experience, knowledge,  language skills, or current concentration level

Guidelines:
3a. Eliminate unnecessary complexity.
3b. Be consistent with user expectations and intuition.
3c. Accommodate a wide range of literacy and language skills.
3d. Arrange information consistent with its importance.
3e. Provide effective prompting and feedback during and after task
completion.

c   PRINCIPLE FOUR: Perceptible Information
The design communicates necessary information effectively to the
user, regardless of ambient  conditions or the user's sensory abilities

Guidelines:
4a. Use different modes (pictorial, verbal, tactile) for redundant
presentation of essential  information.
4b. Provide adequate contrast between essential information and its
surroundings.
4c. Maximize "legibility" of essential information.
4d. Differentiate elements in ways that can be described (i.e., make
it easy to give instructions or  directions).
4e. Provide compatibility with a variety of techniques or devices used
by people with sensory  limitations.

c   PRINCIPLE FIVE: Tolerance for Error
The design minimizes hazards and the adverse consequences of
accidental or unintended actions

Guidelines:
5a. Arrange elements to minimize hazards and errors: most used
elements, most accessible;  hazardous elements eliminated,
isolated, or shielded.
5b. Provide warnings of hazards and errors.
5c. Provide fail safe features.
5d. Discourage unconscious action in tasks that require vigilance.

c   PRINCIPLE SIX: Low Physical Effort
The design can be used efficiently and comfortably and with a
minimum of fatigue

Guidelines:
6a. Allow user to maintain a neutral body position.
6b. Use reasonable operating forces.
6c. Minimize repetitive actions.
6d. Minimize sustained physical effort.

c   PRINCIPLE SEVEN: Size and Space for Approach and Use
Appropriate size and space is provided for approach, reach,
manipulation, and use regardless of  user's body size, posture, or
mobility

Guidelines:
7a. Provide a clear line of sight to important elements for any seated
or standing user.
7b. Make reach to all components comfortable for any seated or
standing user.
7c. Accommodate variations in hand and grip size.
7d. Provide adequate space for the use of assistive devices or
personal assistance.

Please note that the Principles of Universal Design address only
universally usable design, while  the practice of design involves more
than consideration for usability. Designers must also  incorporate
other considerations such as economic, engineering, cultural,
gender, and  environmental concerns in their design processes.
These Principles offer designers guidance to  better integrate
features that meet the needs of as many users as possible.